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Dukkha means suffering, pain, anxiety, and unhappiness-something negative that exist because its part of being human. However, these sufferings does have an end according to Buddha.

Suffering comes from different directions. You can see it in other people’s lives. They are the product of our decisions and actions. Suffering here does not solely mean the disease we acquired from smoking 2 packs of cigarettes a day nor the abdominal pain we get from drinking. One thing is for sure, suffering is part of our existence. But it is up to us on how we deal with it.

Suffering (or unsatisfactoriness) can be distinguished in three types:
1. Suffering of suffering: this refers to the most obvious aspects like pain, fear and mental distress.
2. Suffering of change: refers to the problems that change brings, like joy disappears, nothing stays, decay and death. *remember that the only constant thing in this universe is CHANGE.
3. All-pervasive suffering: this is the most difficult to understand aspect, it refers to the fact that we always have the potential to suffer or can get into problematic situations. Even death is not a solution in Buddhist philosophy, as we will simply find ourselves being reborn in a different body, which will also experience problems.

Then what causes human to suffer?
Our mind is the primary reason why we have all of these sufferings. Remember that our mind is one powerful source. Again, the reason that we experience suffering comes ultimately from our mind. According to Buddhism, our main mental problems or root delusions are: ATTACHMENT, ANGER and IGNORANCE. Because of these delusions, we engage in actions that cause problems to ourselves and others. With every negative action (the karma) we do, we create a potential for negative experiences.

Attachment
– Buddha explains that our attachment to life keeps us in cyclic existence or samsara, which does not bring us continuous happiness. Because we will get stuck to the cycle. Transient things do not only include the physical objects that surround us, but also the ideas,knowledge and -the things that we perceive.
– if we are attach to things and we don’t see it that way-its difficult to identify the cause of the problems
– Do you think a person will be happy if that something special (which he is attached to) will be gone?

Anger
-..all of our actions have consequences.
– When we are ignorant about somethings – as in lack of understanding or knowledge to the nature of the thing/situation, we get angry especially when we can fully understand what’s happening.
– Thus, when other people did something unpleasant to us, we tend to do the same thing to others.
– when there is pain, their is suffering. The absence of happiness.
– Little did we know that the feeling of anger that we may have for something or someone has also an impact onto our own well-being. Thus, a never ending feeling of anger will lead us to heart attack and other heart dilemmas which is also another suffering for us and our family, hence it will greatly affect them as well.
– ignorance and attachment could result to anger. How? imagine yourself totally attach to something, you tend to do many things (usually-not the good one) just to keep that special thing. When that special thing is totally gone, how will you feel? not just sad of course.

Ignorance
– if we are not having a complete or an unlimited knowledge, awareness, or understanding about our self, mistakes, the nature of things that we are involved in, the things that are happening around us- we tend to engage ourselves to troubles that are mostly modifiable and preventable. Thus, things repeat again and again especially if we don’t reflect on it and learn from them.

Ignorance, anger and attachment are connected to each other. One results to another.

Then the question is, what will cease our sufferings in this life? Have you heard about the four noble truth which Siddhartha taught?
“This is the most positive message of Buddhism: although suffering is always present in cyclic existence, we can end this cycle of problems and pain, and enter Nirvana, which is a state beyond all suffering. ”

The truth of dukkha (suffering, anxiety, stress)
– As in, to understand/to accept/to admit/to recognize that there is a problem/suffering
– identifying problems/sufferings.

The truth of the origin of dukkha
– identifying the cause of the sufferings
– if we can’t point out the problem, like a cycle-it will repeat over and over again, thus it will lead us to another layer of sufferings and problems. To be able to solve the problem we must identify the underlying cause.

The truth of the cessation of dukkha
– The solution
– How to remove the suffering/how to solve the problem?
– How? though Nirvana as in the elimination of suffering/ freedom from those negative thoughts, feelings, worries, troubles
and the like.

The truth of the path leading to the cessation of dukkha
– the ways to eliminate the suffering
– how? through the Eight Fold Path

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